See also: Course Design and Development
The Student-Centered Syllabus
Excerpted and condensed from Tools and Techniques for Course Improvement:
A Handbook for Course Review and Assessment of Student Learning
Syllabus Planning and Design
Over the years the course syllabus has evolved into something of a "cover all the bases" document, with quasi-legal implications which obligate both instructor and institution. These elements both announce and pronounce: here is what will be taught, here is what you will read, here is the exam schedule and grading policy, and so forth. An artifact from a century of teacher-centered pedagogy, it is really more of an edict than a contract.
In Quick Start Essentials section we review briefly the common planning and design elements of a course syllabus, which serve as a course road map, glossary, timetable, and handbook. In the following section we will explore how the syllabus can be made more learner-centered and become more of a mutual contract than an unilateral edict.
Orienting Your Syllabus to Student Learning
The effectiveness of course organization is measured by student learning. Therefore instructors who are committed to deepening student learning ask themselves a number of questions as they organize their courses (adapted from Bain, 2004):
- Is the material worth learning?
- Are students learning what the course is supposedly teaching?
- Am I helping or hindering student learning?
- Do I take specific steps to avoid harming my students by:
- fostering short-term learning by intimidation;
- discouraging interest in my field;
- fostering only short-term learning;
- neglecting needs of some kinds of students; or
- failing to evaluate learning accurately?
Elements to Include in the Learning Syllabus
Besides its function as a reference manual for the course, the course syllabus also lays the foundation for your relationship with your students as partners in learning, helping you create [a] critical learning environment.
- Letter to students
A good place to begin is with a letter to students, introducing yourself, welcoming them to your class, and sharing your teaching philosophy.
- I bring to teaching a belief that...
- In the classroom, I see my role in this course as...
- I believe the student's role in this course is...
- I appreciate when students...
- I seek to foster in students...
- I chose this field because...
- I think this course is important because…
- What students expect you will do in the course
- Model how professionals or scholars in your discipline reason, and explain what constitutes evidence that the student has achieved various levels of that kind of thinking.
- Describe your feedback policy, which should be designed to keep students informed about their progress, and to avoid penalizing them or intermediate errors.
- What you expect students to do in the course
- class activities
- obligations (defined)
- What students will gain from a course
- learning objectives and why they are important
- specific responsibilities
- short and long term benefits
- content overview
- relationship of the course to the larger curriculum
- rationale for your instructional approaches
- cognitive skill development: critical thinking, quantitative reasoning, information technology literacy, writing proficiency, problem solving
- affective skill development: awareness, perspectives, abilities, attitudes about teamwork, citizenship, environment, multiculturalism
- Objective-oriented calendar
Show how readings, assignments, exams, and projects are directly tied to specific course learning objectives.
- Implicit in the learning-oriented syllabus is taking the opportunity to reframe grading as a demonstration of achievement of course learning objectives.
- Grades only work when they accurately reflect student mastery of the course learning objectives and provide incentives for deep involvement and understanding.
- Grading procedure and scales
- Convey the clear belief that every student can achieve the learning goals of the course.
- Students must commit to full engagement in the learning environment.
- Tie grades to attainment of actual learning outcomes.
- Make clear to students what specific concepts, knowledge, and abilities are most important.
- Articulate specific
evaluation criteria and standards, expectations of students for
meeting them, and measures for assessing their levels of attainment.
- Create opportunities for providing feedback about student progress, make successive examinations comprehensive, and link grades clearly to actual understanding.
- Grading practices must be tied to real learning outcomes in ways that reward actual learning, and which discourage several kinds of student beliefs and behaviors around grading that can impair learning.
Frye, R., McKinney, G., & Trimble, J. (2007). Tools and Techniques for Course Improvement: A Handbook for Course Review and Assessment of Student Learning, Chapter 9: The Learning-Centered Course Syllabus, Western Washington University.
Grunert O'Brien, J., Mills, B. J., & Cohen, M.W. (2008). The Course
Syllabus: A Learning-Centered
Approach, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Nilson, L. B. (2007). The Graphic Syllabus and the Outcomes Map: Communicating Your Course San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.